Hirumi, A., Appelman, B., Rieber, L., Van Eck, R. (2010). Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part I. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 54(3), 27-37. doi:10.1007/s11528-010-0400-9
The four authors in this article discuss the role of an instructional designer and the role of a game designer in the creation of an educational game. The authors in this article talks about the knowledge and skill set that each party must have in order to build a successful educational game. It is stated that for the most part, instructional designers know very little about the game development process and vice versa, video game developers may know little about training, education and instructional design. However, even though the game building process is completed by the game designers, the instructional designers play a very important role. The information presented in this article by Hirumi, Appelman, Rieber and Van Eck is critical to my study because it demonstrates how important it is to have an educational game built by educators and game designers. I will take this research one step further and discover what characteristics the educators are looking for in educational games.
Huffstetter, M., King, J. R., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Schneider, J. J., & Powell-Smith, K. A. (2010). Effects of a computer-based early reading program on the early reading and oral language skills of at-risk preschool children. Journal Of Education For Students Placed At Risk, 15(4), 279-298. doi:10.1080/10824669.2010.532415
In this article, the authors were attempting to determine whether a computer-based program could be a successful means for increasing the oral language and early reading skills of children. The children were split into two groups; a control group and an experimental group. In the latter group, children were receiving help with their reading and oral skills by a teacher, as well as a computer program. The results from this study suggested that computer-based programs can be effective in increasing the early reading and oral language skills of preschool children. The authors concluded that children had substantial gains in both oral language and reading skills after using the computer software. The authors also argued that since teachers face multiple demands that it is important that computer aided programs exist as long as they do not lower the quality of education. For my research, this study shows that new technologies (including software) can be an asset in the classroom to help aid teachers. This study will not directly impact my study, but it is a positive way to open up the dissertation and demonstrate what capabilities educational games have.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital game-based learning. New York; London: McGraw-Hill.
The author in his book describes what games are digital media are. He explains that games are being used for children, hospitals and even the military. As research in the educational and digital media fields continue, educational games will come to the forefront and be more accepted into the field of education. The author continues describing how technology has changed over the past few years but education and learning techniques have stayed the same over many decades. The book then details why this is and why educational video games can change the way that students learn. At the end of the book in the final chapter, the author states that more research is needed because this is a young field. This bodes well for my research because I hope to continue the research of educational games and discover how educators can make them better. This article is another great piece to explain what educational games are and how they are a part of something larger (serious games).
Tragazikis, P., Kirginas, S., Gouscos, D., & Meimaris, M. (2011). Digital games evaluation and educational assessment – a review and proposal for an open methodological framework (OMEGA). Paper presented at the 604-XIX. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1009900800?accountid=28180
The four authors in their paper discuss what an open framework would be for educational games. The framework would include the necessary information for evaluations and assessments. However, more importantly, the four authors attempt to bring together game designers, educators, and players. The combination of all three is deemed necessary in order to effectively bring the framework together. It is discussed that having all three parties involved will lead to better interaction and also will allow for each perspective to be brought to light appropriately. Each group has their important role in an educational game and my research will look at the role of the educator in building the educational game. While they may not have the skill set to program or build a game, they do have valuable input on what should be included in the game itself.
Zyda, M. (2005). From Visual Simulation to Virtual Reality to Games. IEEE Computer Society, 38(9). Retrieved May 17, 2012, from http://gamepipe.usc.edu/~zyda/pubs/zyda-ieee-computer-sept2005.pdf
Zyda (2005) breaks down in multiple steps what an educational game is. Zyda first starts with the definition of a basic game. From there, that definition is expanded out to a digital game, and then to a serious game. A serious game is also broken down into its subsections, one of which includes educational games. Zyda (2005) in his paper provides many key definitions and terms that can be used through my paper. Zyda discusses how a game must follow a set of rules, and from there it can become one of many different genres of games. The way in which Zyda breaks down the basic definition of a game is incredibly useful and will be used throughout my research.